LMDCs, China and Norway Release ADP Submissions
8 March 2014: The UNFCCC Secretariat has released the submissions of China, Norway, and a joint submission by Ecuador, El Salvador, Saudi Arabia and Mali, on behalf of the Like-Minded Developing Countries (LMDCs), to the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP). The submissions will inform the fourth part of ADP's second session, which is taking place from 10-14 March 2014, in Bonn, Germany.
The LMDC submission emphasizes, inter alia, that: the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) must be central to the 2015 agreement; any developing country actions must be accompanied by a “corresponding equivalent in scaled-up provision of new and additional, adequate and predictable financial resources, including for the transfer of technology;” the Convention Annexes must be maintained; and contact groups should be established at the first meeting in 2014.
On mitigation, the LMDCs propose a subsection on means of implementation and sustainable development, with language on, inter alia: providing financing and technology to address the impacts of implementing response measures; not using unilateral climate change-related trade measures that constitute “arbitrary, unjustified or disguised trade restrictions;” and providing measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) support by developed countries for all climate change activities.
Regarding adaptation, the LMDCs propose that such actions take into account the needs of developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the “adverse effects of climate change, response measures and international trade.” The LMDCs also propose: enhanced action on loss and damage, which incorporates the loss and damage mechanism into the 2015 agreement; and support for approaches to address loss and damage from extreme weather and slow onset events.
On finance, the LMDCs call for: a public climate financing commitment of US$70 billion annually by 2016 that increases to US$100 billion per year by 2020; and a mechanism for the MRV of support to developing countries. On technology transfer and development, the LMDCs propose: removing barriers and including an international intellectual property rights (IPRs) mechanism; and financial support through a technology development and transfer window under the Green Climate Fund (GCF).
The LMDCs state, inter alia: transparency of developed countries' mitigation commitments should be based on enhanced procedures for comparability; transparency of developing countries' mitigation actions should involve new procedures and mechanisms that should be given the opportunity to be implemented; and provisions on the MRV of support should be an integral part of the 2015 outcome.
China's submission states that: the Durban Platform process and outcome should be in accordance with the Convention's principles and provisions, particularly on equity and CBDR; and developed country commitments on finance, technology and capacity building support to developing countries should be as binding as mitigation commitments. China also states that developed countries should undertake mitigation commitments on economy-wide targets in accordance with their historical responsibilities and as required by science.
Regarding process and organization of work, China, inter alia, supports establishing contact groups covering all the elements included in the decision on the ADP's establishment, that is enhanced action on: mitigation; adaptation; technology development and transfer; capacity building; finance; and transparency of action and support.
On pre-2020 ambition, China calls for: developed countries to increase ambition levels; and all Kyoto Protocol parties to ratify the Doha Amendment no later than 31 December 2014 and to significantly increase obligations in the second commitment period. China states that non-Kyoto parties should “increase their comparable mitigation commitments under the Convention within the same timeframe, without any conditionality,” and submit this information in advance of the June 2014 Ministerial roundtable.
China argues that developing countries have already communicated and implemented “ambitious” nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and that further actions are dependent on additional finance, technology and capacity-building support.
The Norwegian submission states that the 2015 agreement should be: guided by the 2°C target; and based on the most recent scientific knowledge and allow for adjustments over time. It recommends focusing on: mitigation and transparency elements of the 2015 agreement; and building on preparatory work on mitigation contributions up to 2015. Norway stresses, inter alia: commitments for all Parties; common multilateral rules, with appropriate flexibility for implementation; differentiation according to national circumstances; and the use of national, regional and international carbon markets for more ambitious contributions.
On quantified and quantifiable emission reductions, Norway supports: a stepwise or phased approach to increase mitigation efforts over time; and emission targets that are not conditional on financial support. On transparency and accountability, Norway emphasizes a common, yet flexible, system to enable appropriate reporting and measurement of progress, according to the type of mitigation commitment.
Norway outlines: three areas where common international approaches should be elaborated (estimating and reporting emissions; accounting for emissions and removals from forest and land use; and rules and frameworks to track the use of market-based mechanisms); and two kinds of joint international consultation processes for the 2015 agreement (an initial process as part of developing the agreement; and a regular assessment process built into the agreement, to update and measure progress). [LMDC Submission] [Norway's Submission] [China's Submission] [IISD RS Story on the ADP's Organization of Work] [ADP 2-4 Webpage]