International Negotiations

Policy Update #24: INDCs: Foundation for a Successful Outcome in Paris? [viewed]

With the Paris Climate Change Conference just around the corner, 134 intended national determined contributions (INDCs), representing more than 150 countries, have been submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat as of 12 November, and more are still expected before Paris. INDCs outline the climate actions that individual countries intend to undertake in the post-2020 period, under the new climate agreement to be decided on in Paris.[1] Viewing them in aggregate should enable the tracking of progress and determining whether they represent a collective level of ambition that will be sufficient to limit temperature rise below 2°C relative to pre-industrial levels.[2]

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Morocco, France Issue Tangier Call for Strong, Solidarity-based Climate Change Action [viewed]

morocco_france28 October 2015: The Permanent Missions to the UN of Morocco and France issued a letter to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon containing the 'Tangier Call for Strong, Solidarity-based Action on Climate Change.' The Call is aimed at mobilizing the international community ahead of the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 21) to the UNFCCC.

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Guest Article #130: New Thinking on Agriculture and Fossil Fuel Subsidies [viewed]

New Zealand is a small, globalized economy built on the land sector. Our farming systems are mostly based on pastoral agriculture. In any given year, our land sector produces about 70% of the value of New Zealand's merchandise exports. As a consequence, there must be few other countries where milk prices are headline news, watched closely by currency traders, bank economists, and dairy farmers alike.

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Climate Vulnerable Forum Issues Manila Communiqué [viewed]

Climate Vulnerable Forum11 November 2015: A meeting of 43 countries vulnerable to climate change concluded with the adoption of a call to "enshrine the critical goal of below 1.5°C together with a successive 5-year commitment cycle" in the Paris climate change agreement. The 20-member Climate Vulnerable Forum (CVF) convened its Sherpa Senior Officers' Meeting, with participation by 23 incoming members, to take stock of progress and prepare a common position ahead of the Paris Climate Change Conference.

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IEA World Energy Outlook: Renewables Leading New Energy Supply by 2030s [viewed]

IEA10 November 2015: The International Energy Agency (IEA) has released the 2015 edition of the 'World Energy Outlook' (WEO-2015). Based on intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) submitted in advance of the Paris Climate Change Conference, WEO-2015 concludes that renewables will become the leading source of new energy supply worldwide, overtaking coal as the largest source of electricity generation by the early-2030s. The report estimates that, by 2040, renewables-based generation will reach 50% in the EU and around 30% in China and Japan, and surpass 25% in the US and India.

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Pre-COP 21 Focuses on Ambition, Fairness, Post-2020 Financing and Pre-2020 Action [viewed]

Paris Climate Change Conference - November 2015 (UNFCCC COP 21)10 November 2015: In preparation for the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 21) to the UNFCCC, 62 ministers gathered in Paris, France, for a three-day "Pre-COP" at the invitation of incoming COP 21 President Laurent Fabius, French Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development. The Pre-COP aimed to consider potential compromises and build political momentum, particularly in the areas of ambition, fairness, post-2020 financing and pre-2020 action.

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UNFCCC Releases Technical Paper to Aid Streamlining ADP Texts [viewed]

UNFCCC6 November 2015: At the 11th part of the second session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP 2-11), held October 2015, Parties requested the UNFCCC Secretariat to draft a technical paper identifying areas of closely related concepts, duplication and possible areas for streamlining in the draft Paris agreement and decisions. The paper (ADP.2015.12.InformalNote) has been released for Parties' consideration ahead of the Paris Climate Change Conference.

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Montreal Protocol Parties Set Roadmap for HFC Amendment [viewed]

Delegates huddle outside the plenary room on the last day of MOP 278 November 2015: The 27th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MOP 27) adopted decisions on essential-use exemptions (EUEs) and critical-use exemptions (CUEs), and a Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) report on alternatives to ozone depleting substances (ODS), among other substantive and procedural decisions. Following protracted negotiations, Parties also agreed to a road map for negotiating an amendment on the feasibility and ways of managing hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

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China, France Call for Comprehensive Stocktaking of GHG Emissions Cuts Every Five Years [viewed]

france_china2 November 2015: Meeting less than a month before the Paris Climate Change Conference, French President François Hollande and Chinese President Xi Jinping agreed that the outcome expected in Paris should include provisions for a five-year review of progress toward reaching long-term emissions goals. The Presidents released a statement following the meeting, explaining that "the results of this stocktake will inform parties in regularly enhancing their actions in a nationally determined manner."

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BASIC Ministers Commit to Ambitious Paris Agreement [viewed]

Flag of China31 October 2015: The Ministers from the BASIC countries (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) have reiterated their commitment to reaching an equitable, ambitious, comprehensive, balanced and durable agreement in Paris through a transparent, inclusive and party-driven process. In their joint statement, the Ministers call for accelerating textual negotiations on the basis of “the revised non-paper” issued by the UNFCCC on 23 October 2015.

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